Logic

Logic
   1) The Science of Logic Finds Ordinary Language to Be an Obstacle
   My initial step . . . was to attempt to reduce the concept of ordering in a sequence to that of logical consequence, so as to proceed from there to the concept of number. To prevent anything intuitive from penetrating here unnoticed, I had to bend every effort to keep the chain of inference free of gaps. In attempting to comply with this requirement in the strictest possible way, I found the inadequacy of language to be an obstacle. (Frege, 1972, p. 104)
   2) Logic Is a Microscope
   I believe I can make the relation of my 'conceptual notation' to ordinary language clearest if I compare it to the relation of the microscope to the eye. The latter, because of the range of its applicability and because of the ease with which it can adapt itself to the most varied circumstances, has a great superiority over the microscope. Of course, viewed as an optical instrument it reveals many imperfections, which usually remain unnoticed only because of its intimate connection with mental life. But as soon as scientific purposes place strong requirements upon sharpness of resolution, the eye proves to be inadequate. . . . Similarly, this 'conceptual notation' is devised for particular scientific purposes; and therefore one may not condemn it because it is useless for other purposes. (Frege, 1972, pp. 104-105)
   3) Logic Carries on an Unceasing Struggle with Psychology
   To sum up briefly, it is the business of the logician to conduct an unceasing struggle against psychology and those parts of language and grammar which fail to give untrammeled expression to what is logical. He does not have to answer the question: How does thinking normally take place in human beings? What course does it naturally follow in the human mind? What is natural to one person may well be unnatural to another. (Frege, 1979, pp. 6-7)
   4) Logic Should Replace the Ordinary Language of Everyday Discourse
   We are very dependent on external aids in our thinking, and there is no doubt that the language of everyday life-so far, at least, as a certain area of discourse is concerned-had first to be replaced by a more sophisticated instrument, before certain distinctions could be noticed. But so far the academic world has, for the most part, disdained to master this instrument. (Frege, 1979, pp. 6-7)
   5) Logic Is Unnatural
   There is no reproach the logician need fear less than the reproach that his way of formulating things is unnatural. . . . If we were to heed those who object that logic is unnatural, we would run the risk of becoming embroiled in interminable disputes about what is natural, disputes which are quite incapable of being resolved within the province of logic. (Frege, 1979, p. 128)
   6) The Significance of "Baby Logic" for Linguistics
   [L]inguists will be forced, internally as it were, to come to grips with the results of modern logic. Indeed, this is apparently already happening to some extent. By "logic" is not meant here recursive function-theory, California model-theory, constructive proof-theory, or even axiomatic settheory. Such areas may or may not be useful for linguistics. Rather under "logic" are included our good old friends, the homely locutions "and," "or," "if-then," "if and only if," "not," "for all x," "for some x," and "is identical with," plus the calculus of individuals, event-logic, syntax, denotational semantics, and . . . various parts of pragmatics. . . . It is to these that the linguist can most profitably turn for help. These are his tools. And they are "clean tools," to borrow a phrase of the late J. L. Austin in another context, in fact, the only really clean ones we have, so that we might as well use them as much as we can. But they constitute only what may be called "baby logic." Baby logic is to the linguist what "baby mathematics" (in the phrase of Murray Gell-Mann) is to the theoretical physicist-very elementary but indispensable domains of theory in both cases. (Martin, 1969, pp. 261-262)
   7) The Existence of a Mental Logic Denied
   There appears to be no branch of deductive inference that requires us to assume the existence of a mental logic in order to do justice to the psychological phenomena. To be logical, an individual requires, not formal rules of inference, but a tacit knowledge of the fundamental semantic principle governing any inference; a deduction is valid provided that there is no way of interpreting the premises correctly that is inconsistent with the conclusion. Logic provides a systematic method for searching for such counter-examples. The empirical evidence suggests that ordinary individuals possess no such methods. (Johnson-Laird, quoted in Mehler, Walker & Garrett, 1982, p. 130)
   8) The Fundamental Paradox of Logic
   The fundamental paradox of logic [that "there is no class (as a totality) of those classes which, each taken as a totality, do not belong to themselves" (Russell to Frege, 16 June 1902, in van Heijenoort, 1967, p. 125)] is with us still, bequeathed by Russell-by way of philosophy, mathematics, and even computer science-to the whole of twentieth-century thought. Twentieth-century philosophy would begin not with a foundation for logic, as Russell had hoped in 1900, but with the discovery in 1901 that no such foundation can be laid. (Everdell, 1997, p. 184)

Historical dictionary of quotations in cognitive science. . 2015.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?
Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Logic — logic …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Logic — • A historical survey from Indian and Pre Aristotelian philosophy to the Logic of John Stuart Mill Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Logic     Logic      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Logic — Pro Entwickler: Apple Inc. Aktuelle Version: 8.0.2 (20. Mai 2008) Betriebssystem: Mac OS X Kategorie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • LOGIC — (Heb. חָכְמַת הַדִּבּוּר or מְלֶאכֶת הַהִגַּיוֹן), the study of the principles governing correct reasoning and demonstration. The term logic, according to Maimonides, is used in three senses: to refer to the rational faculty, the intelligible in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • logic — LÓGIC, Ă, logici, ce s.f., adj. I. s.f. 1. Ştiinţă a demonstraţiei, al cărei obiect este stabilirea condiţiilor corectitudinii gândirii, a formelor şi a legilor generale ale raţionării corecte. ♢ Logică generală = logică clasică, de tradiţie… …   Dicționar Român

  • logic — lo‧gic [ˈlɒdʒɪk ǁ ˈlɑː ] noun [uncountable] 1. COMMERCE commercial/​economic/​industrial logic a way of thinking and making good judgements that is connected to a particular area of business, the economy etc: • Their takeover bid appears to have… …   Financial and business terms

  • Logic — Log ic, n. [OE. logike, F. logique, L. logica, logice, Gr. logikh (sc. te chnh), fr. logiko s belonging to speaking or reason, fr. lo gos speech, reason, le gein to say, speak. See {Legend}.] 1. The science or art of exact reasoning, or of pure… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • logic —    Logic is the study of the correct way of reasoning. It is a prescriptive discipline rather than a merely descriptive one (psychology describes how we actually do reason). The two main methods for describing how we should think are the… …   Christian Philosophy

  • logic — [läj′ik] n. [ME logike < OFr logique < L logica < Gr logikē ( technē), logical (art) < logikos, of speaking or reasoning < logos, a word, reckoning, thought < legein, to speak, choose, read < IE base * leg̑ , to gather > L …   English World dictionary

  • Logic — es una herramienta multiuso desarrollada bajo licencia pública de Mozilla Frontal. Logic de …   Wikipedia Español

  • logic — ► NOUN 1) reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity. 2) the ability to reason correctly. 3) (the logic of) the course of action following as a necessary consequence of. 4) a system or set of principles underlying… …   English terms dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”